Nam Pai Chuan Trading Ltd acknowledges the duty of care to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and is committed to ensuring safeguarding practice reflects statutory responsibilities, government guidance and complies with best practice and British Council of Chinese Martial Arts requirements.
The policy recognises that the welfare and interests of children are paramount in all circumstances. It aims to ensure that regardless of age, ability or disability, gender reassignment, race, religion or belief, sex or sexual orientation, socio-economic background, all children
- have a positive and enjoyable experience of Nam Pai Chuan in a safe and child centred environment.
- are protected from abuse whilst participating in Nam Pai Chuan or outside of the activity.
Nam Pai Chuan Trading Ltd acknowledges that some children, including disabled children and young people or those from ethnic minority communities, can be particularly vulnerable to abuse and we accept the responsibility to take reasonable and appropriate steps to ensure their welfare.
As part of our safeguarding policy Nam Pai Chuan Trading Ltd will
- promote and prioritise the safety and wellbeing of children and young people.
- ensure everyone understands their roles and responsibilities in respect of safeguarding and is provided with appropriate learning opportunities to recognise, identify and respond to signs of abuse, neglect and other safeguarding concerns relating to children and young people.
- ensure appropriate action is taken in the event of incidents/concerns of abuse and support provided to the individual/s who raise or disclose the concern.
- ensure that confidential, detailed and accurate records of all safeguarding concerns are maintained and securely stored.
- prevent the employment/deployment of unsuitable individuals.
- ensure robust safeguarding arrangements and procedures are in operation.
The policy and procedures will be widely promoted and are mandatory for everyone involved in Nam Pai Chuan Trading Ltd. Failure to comply with the policy and procedures will be addressed without delay and may ultimately result in dismissal/exclusion from the organisation.
The policy will be reviewed a year after development and then every three years, or in the following circumstances:
- changes in legislation and/or government guidance.
- as required by the Local Safeguarding Children Board, UK Sport and/or Home Country Sports Councils and the British Council of Chinese Martial Arts.
- as a result of any other significant change or event.
- Responding to concerns
It is the responsibility of Nam Pai Chuan Trading Ltd to ensure that all children are safe whilst in our care and reporting any concerns we may have about a child’s safety outside of the class to the designated safeguarding officer or the appropriate authorities. It is not the system’s responsibility to decide whether child abuse has taken place.
The named safeguarding officer will co-ordinate concerns about children and young people, support instructors with advice and act on reports of concerns.
All concerns should be reported to the designated safeguarding officer as soon as possible and immediately where child abuse is suspected. If this is not possible in person the instructor will do this telephonically. Where child abuse is suspected this may lead to a referral to social care or the police which may have to happen immediately.
All concerns will be recorded on the incident reporting referral form. This will include information about the concern, where it was reported, how it was responded to and what the outcome of this report was.
All instructors will have copies of the recording form and complete it immediately after becoming concerned or after a concern is brought to their attention. If they cannot pass the form straight away to the safeguarding officer they will report the concern verbally to the named officer and then follow up with the completed form within 48 hours.
- Confidentiality and information Sharing
Safeguarding concerns will be discussed only on a need to know basis and all related documents will be kept secure. Child protection records will be kept separately from membership records and a log kept for every time the child protection record is accessed and by whom.
Records in relation to safeguarding concerns for children will be kept until 7 years after the child ceases to have contact with the organisation or until their 26th birthday.
Records in relation to any allegation of misconduct of an adult against a child will be kept until the adult reaches normal retirement age or for 10 years, whichever is longer. The record will be held for the same amount of time if the allegation is unfounded but if it is found to be malicious the record will be destroyed immediately.
All instructors and assistant instructors will be subject to a check with the Disclosure and Barring Service which will be renewed every three years. Anyone barred from working with children or vulnerable adults will not be allowed to teach Nam Pai Chuan. http://llrscb.proceduresonline.com/pdfs/app_1_dbs_factsheet.pdf
All instructors will receive safeguarding children training either online or face to face. Nam Pai Chuan Trading Ltd has signed up to the online safeguarding module Child protection in Sports which is made available to all instructors free of charge. Training completion is recorded and is to be refreshed every three years.
The safeguarding lead completes training for designated staff and receives yearly updates and attends multi-agency training offered by the local authority and/or the NSPCC.
- Code of Conduct for instructors and assistant instructors
All instructors and assistant instructors have a duty of care to children and vulnerable adults, towards themselves and their co-workers. The code of conduct clarifies in detail the standards expected from instructors in and outside of class when teaching Nam Pai Chuan. It gives practical advice to instructors and assistant instructors on how to provide an environment that enables children to develop their confidence and self-esteem as well as self-control, self-discipline and self-respect and to prevent any malpractice that could lead to allegations of abuse or discrimination against instructors.
All instructors and assistant instructors will receive a copy of the Code of Conduct and sign a copy which will be kept.
- Information for Parents and Carers
Information for parents and carers includes amongst other details about matters that could affect the safety of their own or others’ children such as taking and publishing of images of children, changing room arrangements, supervision and collection of children.
Our safeguarding officers are:
Jerome De Silva
Types of Abuse and Abusive Practices
may involve hitting, shaking, throwing, poisoning, burning or scalding, drowning, suffocating, or otherwise causing physical harm to a child.
Fabricated and Induced Illness
Physical harm may also be caused when a parent or carer fabricates the symptoms of, or deliberately induces illness in a child.
Bruising in Pre-Mobile Babies
Bruising is the commonest presenting feature of physical abuse in children.
- The younger the child the higher the risk that the bruising is non-accidental, especially where the child is under the age of 6 months.
- Bruising in any child ‘not independently mobile’ should prompt suspicion of maltreatment.
2. Child Sexual Abuse
Involves forcing or enticing a child or young person to take part in sexual activities, not necessarily involving a high level of violence, whether or not the child is aware of what is happening.
The activities may involve physical contact, including assault by penetration (for example, rape or oral sex) or non-penetrative acts such as masturbation, kissing, rubbing and touching outside of clothing.
They may also include non-contact activities, such as involving children in looking at, or in the production of, sexual images, watching sexual activities, encouraging children to behave in sexually inappropriate ways, or grooming a child in preparation for abuse (including via the internet).
Sexual abuse is not solely perpetrated by adult males. Women can also commit acts of sexual abuse, as can other children.
Child sexual exploitation is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into sexual activity (a) in exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or (b) for the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator. The victim may have been sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears consensual. Child sexual exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through the use of technology. [Department of Education, 2017]
The recent report by the Children’s Commissioner into CSE found that over the past 20 years evidence has shown that large numbers of children are being sexually exploited in the UK. It called for urgent action to ensure practitioners recognise the many warning signs that children display when being subjected to sexual exploitation at the hands of gangs and groups and that they know how to act.
Consent to sexual activity:
Even where a young person is old enough to legally consent to sexual activity, the law states that consent is only valid where they make a choice and have the freedom and capacity to make that choice. If a child feels they have no other meaningful choice, are under the influence of harmful substances or fearful of what might happen if they don’t comply (all of which are common features in cases of child sexual exploitation) consent cannot legally be given whatever the age of the child.
Child sexual exploitation is never the victim’s fault, even if there is some form of exchange: all children and young people under the age of 18 have a right to be safe and should be protected from harm.
From April 2017, there is a new law to prevent sexual communication with a child which aims to help keep children safe in a digital world and prevent future victims. It is now a criminal offence for anyone aged 18 or over to intentionally communicate with a child under 16, where the person acts for a sexual purpose and the communication is sexual or intended to elicit a sexual response. The offence applies to online and offline communication, including social media, e-mail, texts, and letters.
Note: CSE is a form of sexual abuse. Act on your concerns in the same way as you would for other safeguarding concerns by seeking advice and contacting Children’s Social Care or the Police.
For help in assessing whether a child’s behaviour may be concerning or part of their normal development this resource can be helpful: Brook – Sexual Behaviours Traffic Light Tool
- Emotional Abuse
Is the persistent emotional maltreatment of a child (causing severe and persistent adverse effects on the child’s emotional development).
- Conveying to a child that they are worthless or unloved, inadequate, or valued only insofar as they meet the needs of another person.
- Not giving the child opportunities to express their views, deliberately silencing them or ‘making fun’ of what they say or how they communicate.
- Age or developmentally inappropriate expectations being imposed on children.
- Bullying behaviours.
- Witnessing Violence Against Otherswhen exposed to domestic violence between other members of the family or gang violence.
Neglect is the persistent failure to meet a child’s basic physical and/or psychological needs, likely to result in the serious impairment of the child’s health or development.
Neglect may occur during pregnancy as a result of maternal substance abuse.
Once a child is born, neglect may involve a parent or carer failing to provide adequate food and clothing, shelter, including exclusion from home or abandonment, failing to protect a child from physical and emotional harm or danger, failure to ensure adequate supervision including the use of inadequate care-takers, or the failure to ensure access to appropriate medical care or treatment. It may also include neglect of, or unresponsiveness to, a child’s basic emotional needs.
- Domestic Abuse/ Domestic violence
One woman in three (and one man in five) in the UK will be a victim of domestic violence during their lifetime, according to research estimates. Two women a week are killed by a current or former male partner.
Types of domestic violence or abuse.
Domestic violence and abuse includes any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 or over who are or have been, intimate partners or family members regardless of gender or sexuality. It also includes so called ‘honour’ -based violence, female genital mutilation and forced marriage.
Coercive or controlling behaviour is a core part of domestic violence. Coercive behaviour can include:
- acts of assault, threats, humiliation and intimidation.
- harming, punishing, or frightening the person.
- isolating the person from sources of support.
- exploitation of resources or money.
- preventing the person from escaping abuse.
- regulating everyday behaviour.
Possible indicators of domestic violence or abuse
- Low self-esteem.
- Feeling that the abuse is their fault when it is not.
- Physical evidence of violence such as bruising, cuts, broken bones.
- Verbal abuse and humiliation in front of others.
- Fear of outside intervention.
- Damage to home or property.
- Isolation – not seeing friends and family.
- Limited access to money.
Teenagers are the age group that is most likely to experience violence in an intimate relationship however children of any age, including the unborn, will be affected if their care giver is the victim of domestic abuse. Domestic violence can have a devastating impact on children and young people, affecting their health, well-being and development, as well as their educational achievement. It is always a safeguarding concern.
- FGM (Female Genital Mutilation)
Female genital mutilation (sometimes referred to as female circumcision or cutting) refers to procedures that intentionally alter or cause injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It has no medical benefits and causes severe pain and has several immediate and long term health consequences.
FGM is not an issue that can be decided on by personal preference – it is an illegal, extremely harmful practice and a form of child abuse and violence against women and girls. Appropriate course of action should be decided on a case by case basis, with the expert input from all agencies involved. Training can be accessed from your local LSCB.
Once concerns have been raised about FGM, there should also be a consideration of potential risk to other girls in the family and practising community.
Key Facts about FGM
- It’s illegal in the UK as is taking anyone out of the UK for the procedure.
- It is prevalent in 28 African countries as well as in parts of the Middle East and Asia and not specific to any particular religion.
- Approximately 137,000 women and children resident in England and Wales are living with the consequences of FGM.
- Over 60,000 girls under the age of 15 are at risk of FGM in the UK each year.
- It constitutes a form of child abuse and violence against women and girls, and has severe short-term and long-term physical and psychological consequences.
- The procedure may be carried out when the girl is newborn, during childhood or adolescence, just before marriage or during the first pregnancy. However, the majority of cases of FGM are thought to take place between the ages of 5 and 8 and therefore girls within that age bracket are at a higher risk.
- It’s practiced by families for a variety of complex reasons but often in the belief that it is beneficial for the girl or woman.
- Forced Marriage
A forced marriage is where one or both people do not (or in cases of people with learning disabilities, cannot) consent to the marriage and pressure or abuse is used. It is an appalling and indefensible practice and is illegal in Great Britain. It is recognised as a form of violence against women and men, domestic/child abuse and a serious abuse of human rights.
A marriage must be entered into with the free and full consent of both parties, you should feel you have a choice. The pressure put on people to marry against their will can be physical (including threats, actual physical violence and sexual violence) or emotional and psychological (for example, when someone is made to feel like they’re bringing shame on their family). Financial abuse (taking your wages or not giving you any money) can also be a factor.
In some cases people may be taken abroad without knowing that they are to be married. When they arrive in that country, their passport(s)/travel documents may be taken to try to stop them from returning to the UK.
- Honour based violence (HBV)
A term used to describe violence, including murder, where the victim is deemed to have brought shame by breaching the honour code for the family or community. It is seen by the perpetrators as protecting or defending the honour of the family or community. Where children and young people, or their parents or carers are at risk of honour based violence great care must be taken not to put the victim at further risk of harm.
- Spirit possession or witchcraft
Belief in spirit possession is defined as the belief that an evil force has entered a child and is controlling him or her. Sometimes the term ‘witch’ is used. It is the belief that a child is able to use an evil force to harm others. In these cases genuine beliefs can be held that evil forces are at work. Abuse often occurs when an attempt is made to ‘exorcise’ or ‘deliver’ the child. Where concerns are identified this will need a referral to social services.
- Modern Slavery
Modern Slavery encompasses slavery, human trafficking, forced labour and domestic servitude. Traffickers and slave masters use whatever means they have at their disposal to coerce, deceive and force individuals into a life of abuse, servitude and inhumane treatment.
British and foreign nationals can be trafficked into, around and out of the UK. Children, women and men can all be victims of modern slavery.
Children, women and men are trafficked for a wide range of reasons including:
- sexual exploitation.
- domestic servitude.
- forced labour including in the agricultural, construction, food processing, hospitality industries and in factories.
- criminal activity including cannabis cultivation, street crime, forced begging and benefit fraud.
- organ harvesting.
Signs of trafficking
There are many signs that could inform you a person is a victim of trafficking. If the child and or/ young people might show the following signs:
- have an unclear relationship with the accompanying adult.
- go missing quickly (sometimes within 48 hours of going into care) and repeatedly from school, home and care.
- give inconsistent information about their age.
- carry out work that seems beyond what a child is usually expected to help in a household.
If you have any concerns about a child, young person or adult take immediate action to ask further questions and get additional information and support.
- trafficked people may not self-identify as victims of modern slavery.
- trafficking victims can be prevented from revealing their experience by intimidation, fear, shame, because of language barriers and a lack of opportunity to do so. It can take time for a person to feel safe enough to open up.
- err on the side of caution regarding age: if a person tells you they are under 18 or if a person says they are an adult, but you suspect they are not, then take action as though they were under 18 years old.
- support for victims of human trafficking is available.
- Cyber bullying and Internet Safety
Cyber bullying (also called ‘online bullying’) is when a person or a group of people uses the internet, email, online games or any other kind of digital technology to threaten, tease, upset or humiliate someone else.
From April 2017, there is a new law to prevent sexual communication with a child which will aim to help keep children safe in a digital world and prevent future victims. It is now a criminal offence for anyone aged 18 or over to intentionally communicate with a child under 16, where the person acts for a sexual purpose and the communication is sexual or intended to elicit a sexual response. The offence applies to online and offline communication, including social media, e-mail, texts, and letters.
Appendix 2: Children in Special Circumstances
- Safeguarding Looked After Children (LAC)
Children become Looked After Children when the local authority takes on parental responsibility. In the majority of cases this happens when the child is removed from their parental home over concerns about their safety. It is well documented that Looked After Children and young people share the same health risks and problems as their peers, but often to a greater degree due to the impact of poverty, abuse and neglect. Looked after children are among societies most vulnerable, in terms of safeguarding.
- Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children MUST be referred to Children’s Social Services
In July 2016, A Parliamentary Select Committee report entitled Children in Crisis: Unaccompanied Migrant Children in the EU makes the statement: ‘All we can know for certainty is that the number of unaccompanied children in the EU runs to many tens of thousands and has grown significantly in recent years’. From this uncertainty a very specific figure of 3,043 asylum applications from unaccompanied minors were made in the UK, an increase of 56% from 2014. Most of these children have arrived in Kent and passed through reception centres in the county before being rapidly dispersed either into foster care or supported living arrangements.
- Private Fostering
A private fostering arrangement is essentially an arrangement between families / households, without the involvement of a local authority, for the care of a child under the age of 16 (under 18 if disabled) by someone other than a parent or close relative (close relatives are parents, step-parents, siblings, siblings of a parent i.e. aunt/uncle and grandparents) for 28 days or more. This could be an arrangement by mutual agreement between parents and the carers or a situation where a child has left home against their parent’s wishes and is living with a friend and the friend’s family.
The period for which the child is cared for and accommodated by the private foster carer should be continuous, but that continuity is not broken by the occasional short break. Privately fostered children are a diverse, and sometimes vulnerable, group. Groups of privately fostered children include:
- Children sent from abroad to stay with another family, usually to improve their educational opportunities.
- Asylum seeking and refugee children.
- Teenagers who, having broken ties with their parents, are staying in short term arrangements with friends or other non-relatives.
- Children whose parents or carer are deceased.
- Children of prisoners placed with distant relatives.
- Language students living with host families.
- Trafficked children.
All children who are identified as living under a private fostering arrangement must be referred to the Local Authority Children’s Social Care for assessment of that placement and to ensure that their needs are being meet.
- Young Carers
In many families, children contribute to family care and well-being as a part of normal family life. A young carer is a child who is responsible for caring on a regular basis for a relative (usually a parent, grandparent, sometimes a sibling or very occasionally a friend) who has an illness or disability. This can be primary or secondary caring.
Caring responsibilities can significantly impact upon a child’s health and development. Many young carers experience:
- Social isolation.
- A low level of school attendance.
- Some educational difficulties.
- Impaired development of their identity and potential.
- Low self-esteem.
- Emotional and physical neglect.
- Conflict between loyalty to their family and their wish to have their own needs met.
A referral should be made to the Local Authority children’s social care, if the child is unlikely to:
- Achieve or maintain a reasonable standard of health or development because of their caring responsibilities.
- At serious risk of harm through abuse or neglect.
- Providing intimate body care.
Unless there is reason to believe that it would put the child at risk of harm, young carers should be told if there is a need to make a referral, in order that their trust in a professional is retained.
Wherever possible, the young carer’s consent and the consent of their parent or carer should be sought, through a discussion of why the referral must be made and the possible outcomes. Children assessed as young carer’s have access to services from the Local Authority and peer support.
- Young People in Gangs
A gang is defined as a relatively durable, predominately street based group of young people who see themselves (and are seen by others) as a discernible group for whom crime and violence is integral to the groups identity. Children in gangs are at risk of violent crime and are deemed vulnerable. Risks associated with gang involvement include access to weapons, retaliatory violence, knife crime, sexual violence, exploitation, violent extremism and substance misuse.
Appendix 3: National Helplines
Childline – NSPCC 0800 1111
National Domestic Violence Helpline
This free-phone 24- hour helpline is a national service for women experiencing domestic violence, their family, friends, colleagues and others calling on their behalf.
This is a national charity working to end domestic violence against women and children.
Men’s Advice Line
Advice and support for men experiencing Domestic abuse.
National LGBT Domestic Abuse Helpline
Forced Marriage Unit
If you are worried you might be forced into marriage or are worried about a friend or relative, contact the Forced Marriage Unit.